DehydrationThe basic rule of thumb is to start a walk having had 16 oz. of water (a pint or half liter), and then replenishing with a cup of water every 15-20 minutes. That is about a water bottle-full an hour, about a half liter or pint. End your walk with a big glass of water. That may prevent dehydration - losing too much fluid from your body. Guidelines changed in 2003 to tell distance walkers and runners to drink as soon as thirsty.
Signs of dehydration: Dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, stomach ache, back pain, headache, irritability, decreased urination.
Hyponatremia (loss of sodium or body salt)Sweating removes both water and salts - electrolytes - from your body as you walk. Depending on the humidity, you may not notice how much you are sweating. For walks of over an hour, replenishing your electrolytes with sports drink is also important to prevent hyponatremia. It is recommended to drink 1 bottle of sports drink for every 2 bottles of water. Eating salty snacks such as pretzels during long walks is another source of salt. Some races just give you those little fast food salt packets to sprinkle on your tongue along with water. Guidelines as of 2003 emphasize not overdoing it on plain water, as some walkers drink more than the recommended water amount and flush out their body salts, ending up sick with hyponatremia. Do not overdrink at the end of you walk, either. Be sure to have salty snacks or sports drink after your walk.
Signs of hyponatremia: nausea, headache, cramps, confusion, slurred speech, bloating and swollen hands.
Getting Hydration RightWeigh yourself immediately before and immediately after a long walk. If you are getting dehydrated, your weight will drop from the loss of water. If you are losing body salt and drinking too much plain water without salt, you will gain weight. Keep records of what and how much you drank, sweat level, salt, etc. and adjust so you are not gaining or losing during the walk.
Carrying ItHow do you carry along sports drink on a long training walk where you won't have any support? Assuming you have a source of water, buy the powdered sports drink mix and mix it with your water. It adds little weight and could keep you out of the emergency room.
If the event or race provides water stops with sports drink and water, it is still essential to carry your own water and sports drink. You may become thirsty between water stops, and if you don't drink when thirsty, you are putting yourself in danger. Even well-run events may run out of cups, sports drink or water at the water stop you were relying upon. Faster and slower walkers may come upon stops not yet set up or already closed. Wise walkers always carry their own water and sports drink, just in case.
Deadly QuotesAnne Thimm heard plenty of excuses for not drinking enough water and sports drink at the Avon Breast Cancer 3-Day Walk. At 20 miles a day for three days in hot weather, those excuses could put you in the hospital. Read these deadly quotes:
Lewis G. Maharam, MD.FACSM (chair),Tamara Hew DPM, Arthur Siegel MD, Marv Adner, MD, Bruce Adams, MD and Pedro Pujol, MD, FACSM. "IMMDAs Revised Fluid Recommendations for Runners and Walkers." IMMDA. 6 May 2006.